At the stage of design documentation, engineering, geological and geotechnical studies make it possible to make the optimal decision regarding the choice of the type, structure and depth of the foundation, to develop decisions on spatial planning. And also build a calculated geomechanical model of the interaction of buildings and structures with a natural foundation, justify the excavation methods. Before using the geological and geotechnical service, a topographic plan with outlined contours of the designed structures should be presented in order to work out the scope of qualifications together with experts.
The result of the geological and geotechnical service will be a technical report prepared on the basis of field work and laboratory work, containing statistical processing of the results of laboratory analyzes, conclusions regarding the geological and lithological structure, composition, state . And also, the physical and mechanical properties of soils, hydrogeological conditions, unfavorable processes and phenomena, as well as graphic material in the form of geological and lithological, engineering and geological cross-sections and thematic maps.
As part of the geological and geotechnical service, engineering and geotechnical studies are carried out in order to obtain detailed information about the deformation properties of soils on the construction site . After this information is in the hands of engineers, they begin to design the foundations and plan the work of the so-called zero cycle. Another important function of engineering and geotechnical research is prevention. Knowing the soils allows you to anticipate possible emergencies during excavation and construction work, which means preventing them.
GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL SERVICES CONSIST OF THE GROUP OF WORKS:
- Soil research
- Probing (dynamic and static)
- Experimental filtration type work
- Modeling the interaction of the designed building with the geological environment
- Economic, geological and social risk assessment
- Study of the scope of the impact of the designed structure on the surrounding buildings
- Soil testing for building foundations.
Obtaining information about the mechanical properties of soils is carried out using dynamic and static detection. If the structure is to be based on a pile, connected plate foundation, then static sounding is mandatory. As a rule, dynamic and static sounding is necessarily used in the study of sandy soils.
FILTRATION WORKS AS PART OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL SERVICES
Aquifers are present in all soil. Pilot filtration works are used to predict their impact on the future structure and its construction process. Using them, the properties of these aquifers are determined, then the water input is calculated, a water-lowering design is developed and large-scale hydrogeological modeling is performed. Pilot filtration work is carried out using water pumping and express loading.
GEOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT
An important element of geological and geotechnical services is the geological risk assessment . With the help of this technique, the amount of possible social and economic losses caused by accidents is calculated. These accidents can occur as a result of karst processes and during flooding in the territory. The geological risk assessment is related to their identification in a given territory, and both the activation of existing threats and the emergence of new consequences of construction and operation should be taken into account.
In order for the construction of a private house to be successful, it is necessary to conduct geological surveys as part of individual housing construction. The main purpose of geological and geotechnical services of such works is to determine the characteristics of soil deformation. Such information will help in the correct development of a construction project or make changes to an already prepared document. Thus, you can avoid various unforeseen situations during construction, as well as save considerable money in the future by eliminating gaps in the cladding and walls.
TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE GEOLOGY OF A PRIVATE HOUSE
The company providing geological and geotechnical services will prepare the scope of qualifications for geological research. The client must provide the relevant data: the number of storeys of the future house, the size of the construction site, as well as the depth of the basement (if planned). When conducting research for private houses, special attention is paid to wells. They should be located where the construction is planned.
In addition, wells should be drilled along the axis or contour of the designed house. The depth of the well for checking the ground depends on the type of foundation used. In most cases, 10-meter wells will suffice. Based on these statistics, comprehensive offers for private homes are compiled. During drilling, specialists performing geological and geotechnical services will take soil and groundwater samples. The received materials are thoroughly tested in the laboratory. The processed information will be collected in the technical report.